New Invincible Defense Trend in India? Ending War – Indian Strategic Review

Posted on July 25th, 2001

This article appeared in Indian Strategic Review, July 25, 2001

New Invincible Defense Trend in India?
Ending War and Political Violence

Practically no citizen of India needs to be persuaded of the benefits of preventing war and political violence. Conflict in any country inevitably spills unrest and its related problems unto its neighbours, with negative consequences. Due to the easy availability of weapons of mass destruction, future political unrest could be worse. Defending against these weapons is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Thus, war and political violence must be addressed at their root cause: collective social stress.

A group of retired Indian military leaders are trying to prevent war by reducing collective social stress. This group includes Major General Kulwant Singh, Major General D.D. Ghoshal, Major General K.K. Ganguly, Major General G.K. Sahney, Major General G.H. Israni, and Colonel S.P. Bakshi. They are the directors charged with the responsibility for deploying an ancient invincible defence strategy in India in the near future. These proponents of this novel strategy — Consciousness-Based defence — say that it will prevent war and political violence at home and on India’s borders.

Mozambique was the first country to try this approach. Following decades of war, the governmental leaders, including President Joaquim Alberto Chissano wanted an extra boost to maintain a delicate peace in 1992. Even though the UN was on the way, they decided to employ Consciousness-Based defence. The Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Armed Forces of Mozambique assigned an additional duty to several military units of Ground, Naval and Air Forces. That duty was to practise a simple mental technique.

Before implementing the technique, the Joint Chiefs of Staff carefully studied extensive research on Consciousness-Based defence. Using consciousness to prevent war was a radical idea, but Mozambique was drained from war and desperate for peace. The military units’ new duty was to practise the Transcendental Meditation programme in groups twice daily. Their Commander-in-Chief, President Chissano, as well as other high-ranking leaders, practised the Transcendental Meditation technique themselves.

The Transcendental Meditation technique is a simple, easily learned, non-religious meditation practise. Physicist and Vedic scholar Maharishi Mahesh Yogi revived the Transcendental Meditation programme from India’s ancient Vedic tradition. Over 600 scientific studies have been conducted on this technique and its related programmes. Transcendental Meditation has been proven to eliminate stress individually and collectively. Mozambique adopted it, and the advanced TM-Sidhi programme, to prevent the return of war, improve its economy and cut the crime rate.

Soon, positive trends were observed. Crime decreased substantially. Lt. General Tobias Dai, then Commander of the Mozambique Armed Forces (now the Defence Minister), said, “When thousands of people were taught in Maputo, it was possible to assess a decrease of 20% in the crime index during the first quarter of 1993. This situation was totally anomalous, because, at the end of the war, an increase of crime would be expected.” This trend was repeated in other areas. “The same thing (crime decrease of 20%) happened in the city of Quelimane and the province of Manica,” said Dai.

As part of the peace agreement, the military began to demobilize. Groups of meditators disbanded and the positive trends reversed. Dai said, “What is very clear is that once the positive effect is created, if group practise is stopped, the previous tendencies of higher collective stress, as determined from the crime indexes and the tense situations in the country, began to rise again. In 1994, there was a remarkable decrease in coherence in the country as a result of decreased participation in the group practise of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme…” New groups of meditators, although smaller, were formed because Mozambique was tired of war.

Over the decades, Mozambique has been devastated by problems that started in 1964, when it sought independence from Portugal. Even after independence was achieved in 1975, civil and border conflicts ensued. Massacres, drought, and famine plagued the populace.

The population often lived in a climate of fear. In 1986, armed forces from one of Mozambique’s factions were expelled from the neighboring country of Malawi. As these fighters poured into northern Mozambique, tens of thousands of Mozambican refugees flooded Malawi to escape violence. The next year, large numbers of Mozambicans were massacred. The country was brought to the verge of collapse.

Mozambique is a prime example of how fear is a driving force in the current defence paradigm. This fear-based model applies to factions within countries, as well as conflict between countries. As in other countries, Mozambique’s conflicts dragged on for years, inciting fear in the population. Often, unrest affects neighboring countries, spreading violence. For instance, the South African Defence Force raided Mozambique in 1981.

Fear of attack causes countries and factions to build up arms. This is a self-reinforcing cycle as other groups are drawn into the fray. While the cycle of arms build-up makes arms dealers rich, it drains resources that might be better spent on alleviating economic, social, and environmental problems.

Historically, peace-making and peace-keeping forces are usually ineffective at stopping civil and interstate war. The prospects of stopping a large-scale war are dim. Lt. General Dai said, “The proposed future UNO (United Nations Organization) mission…was not a guarantee of the maintenance of peace — as has been seen in many countries in the world.” Mozambique’s strong desire for permanent peace was a significant factor in choosing Consciousness-Based defence. Mozambique was the only country to try Consciousness-Based defence in the 1900’s. It also had “the only successful UNO mission in the world,” said Dai.

Extensive research indicates that only one percent of a population practicing the TM technique results in a coherent society. Fewer practitioners of the more advanced TM-Sidhi programme seem to be needed to create the same effect — just the square root of one percent of the population.

Over fifty studies have been conducted in the last 25 years. Peer-reviewed publications, such as Journal of Conflict ResolutionSocial Indicators Research, Journal of Crime and Justice, Journal of Mind and Behavior and International Journal of Neuroscience, are among the respected scientific journals that have published studies on the social coherence-creating effects of the TM and TM-Sidhi programme. The changes include: reductions in war deaths, improvements in economic conditions, enhanced quality of life, and reductions in crime, violence, accidents, and illness.

President Chissano asserts that creating peace with Consciousness-Based defence requires a shift in consciousness. “The culture of war has to be replaced by the culture of peace,” says Chissano. “For that purpose, something deeper has to be changed in our minds and in our consciousness to prevent the recurrence of war.” He urges other countries to adopt Consciousness-Based defence. Mozambique was the first country to deploy Consciousness-Based defence in the second millennium. In the face of modern dangers, India has the chance to revive its own Vedic heritage by putting Consciousness-Based defence to the ultimate test. Mozambique has lead the first charge. Now India has the opportunity to come full circle and go down in history as the creator of world peace.

Dr. David R. Leffler received his Ph.D. on the topic of Consciousness-Based military defence.

Mrs. Lee M. Leffler received her Master of Arts in Professional Writing. Other articles by the Leffler’s about Consciousness-Based defence are available at:

1. The views expressed above are those of the authors and do not reflect the official concepts of the Indian Strategic Review or the Institute for Strategic Research and Analysis.

2. The idea is indeed novel. However, it ignores the aspect of the National Interests having an overwhelming influence in the conduct of International relations, in which war is just one of the instruments of National Policy.
– ‘Editor,’ Indian Strategic Review

[Editor’s note: The information below became available after the article above was published in Indian Strategic Review:

For more information about the deployment of Invincible Defense Technology (IDT) by the military of Mozambique, please see this article by Steve Taylor Ph.D. in Psychology Today: “Can Meditation Change the World? The amazing story of the ‘meditating president.’”

For a summary of Mozambique’s history since the 1960’s, see War and Peace in Mozambique – A Time Line.

Also see the paper by Guy David Hatchard Ph.D. and Kenneth Cavanaugh Ph.D. The Peace and Well Being of Nations: An Analysis of Improved Quality of Life and Enhanced Economic Performance Through the Maharishi Effect in New Zealand, Norway, USA, Cambodia, and Mozambique. A Longitudinal, Cross-Country, Panel-Regression Analysis of the IMD Index of National Competitive Advantage” published in Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace.]

Comments are closed.